Information about COVID-19
Information about the Coronavirus
-JOHNS HOPKINS HOSPITAL
- The virus is not a living organism, but a protein molecule (DNA) covered by a protective layer of lipid (fat), which, when absorbed by the cells of the ocular, nasal or buccal mucosa, changes their genetic code. (mutation) and convert them into aggressor and multiplier cells.
- Since the virus is not a living organism but a protein molecule, it is not killed, but decays on its own. The disintegration time depends on the temperature, humidity and type of material where it lies.
- The virus is very fragile; the only thing that protects it is a thin outer layer of fat. That is why any soap or detergent is the best remedy, because the foam CUTS the FAT (that is why you have to rub so much: for 20 seconds or more, to make a lot of foam).
- By dissolving the fat layer, the protein molecule disperses and breaks down on its own.
- HEAT melts fat; this is why it is so good to use water above 77 degrees Fahrenheit for washing hands, clothes and everything. In addition, hot water makes more foam and that makes it even more useful.
- Alcohol or any mixture with alcohol over 65% DISSOLVES ANY FAT, especially the external lipid layer of the virus.
- Any mix with 1 part bleach and 5 parts water directly dissolves the protein, breaks it down from the inside.
- Oxygenated water helps long after soap, alcohol and chlorine, because peroxide dissolves the virus protein, but you have to use it pure and it hurts your skin.
- NO BACTERICIDE OR ANTIBIOTIC SERVES. The virus is not a living organism like bacteria; antibodies cannot kill what is not alive.
- NEVER shake used or unused clothing, sheets or cloth. While it is glued to a porous surface, it is very inert and disintegrates only
- -between 3 hours (fabric and porous),
- -4 hours (copper and wood)
- -24 hours (cardboard),
- - 42 hours (metal) and
- -72 hours (plastic).
- But if you shake it or use a feather duster, the virus molecules float in the air for up to 3 hours, and can lodge in your nose.
- The virus molecules remain very stable in external cold, or artificial as air conditioners in houses and cars.
- They also need moisture to stay stable, and especially darkness. Therefore, dehumidified, dry, warm and bright environments will degrade it faster.
- UV LIGHT on any object that may contain it breaks down the virus protein. For example, to disinfect and reuse a mask is perfect. Be careful, it also breaks down collagen (which is protein) in the skin.
- The virus CANNOT go through healthy skin.
- Vinegar is NOT useful because it does not break down the protective layer of fat.
- NO SPIRITS, NOR VODKA, serve. The strongest vodka is 40% alcohol, and you need 65%.
- LISTERINE IF IT SERVES! It is 65% alcohol.
- The more confined the space, the more concentration of the virus there can be. The more open or naturally ventilated, the less.
- You have to wash your hands before and after touching mucosa, food, locks, knobs, switches, remote control, cell phone, watches, computers, desks, TV, etc. And when using the bathroom.
- You have to Moisturize dry hands from so much washing them, because the molecules can hide in the micro cracks. The thicker the moisturizer, the better.
- Also keep your NAILS SHORT so that the virus does not hide there.
List of Symptoms and When to Seek Medical Attention
- CDC - People with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness. These symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus:
Fever, Cough, Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, Chills, Repeated shaking with chills, Muscle pain, Headache, Sore throat and/or New loss of taste or smell
- If you have any of these emergency warning signs for COVID-19 get medical attention immediately:
Trouble breathing, Persistent pain or pressure in the chest, New confusion or inability to arouse, Bluish lips or face. This list is not all inclusive. Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning to you.
Call 911 if you have a medical emergency: Notify the operator that you have, or think you might have, COVID-19. If possible, put on a cloth face covering before medical help arrives.
Link to CDC's Symptoms page
- World Health Organization (WHO) List of Symptoms:
The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Some patients may have aches and pains, nasal congestion, sore throat or diarrhea.
Link to WHO's Symptoms page
Heating kills coronavirus
- If used properly, moderate or high heat can be used to "kill" coronavirus, inactivating the virus so that it is no longer infectious. However, this can be more time-consuming than other methods such as chemical disinfection (with disinfecting wipes or sprays) and there is often no need to disinfect packaging at all if you can just remove the packaging, dispose of it (preferably by recycling), and then disinfect your hands by washing with soap and warm water or using another disinfection method.
- Heat is very effective at disinfecting objects from coronavirus. Experiments done in China on the coronavirus SARS-CoV (Duan, Biomed Env Sci 2003), which is similar to the SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19, found that coronavirus was completely deactivated (essentially sterilized) within 30 minutes when subjected to a temperature of 167 degrees Fahrenheit. It took 60 minutes at 152 degrees and 90 minutes at 132 degrees. At 99 degrees or lower, the virus remained quite infectious at two hours, when the experiment ended.
- This suggests, for example, that if you purchase take-out food and wish to disinfect the container itself of coronavirus (as well as keep your food warm), you can simply place the container in a warm (150 degree) oven or warming drawer for an hour to disinfect it. Just be sure it is not directly exposed to a heating element so as not to pose a fire hazard. Most plastic and paper containers are stable for short periods at 150 degrees.
- Heating a face mask this way may also disinfect it, and a study by researchers at Stanford University found that heating N95 masks at 167 degrees for 30 minutes did not compromise the masks, even after 20 cycles.
- Don't directly refrigerate — it keeps the virus infectious
- What this and other research suggest is that you should not place a recently purchased food container directly into a refrigerator and you should not "quarantine" a recently received package in a cold cellar or cold garage, as this will preserve coronavirus and could keep it infectious for days.
Link to Consumer Lab
When and How to Wash Your Hands by CDC Link to CDC Instructions
Drying your hands after washing is a key part of coronavirus prevention
- Anna Medaris Miller, Business Insider USMarch 9, 2020
- Washing your hands frequently and thoroughly is one of the most important ways to protect yourself and others from the novel coronavirus.
- But drying your hands properly is just as important since wet or moist hands can breed germs.
- Different drying methods have different levels of effectiveness, with paper towels being one of the best and air dryers being the worst, a hygiene expert told Insider.
- People concerned about coronavirus outbreaks have heard the message loud and clear: Wash your hands, and wash them well and often.
- But the other half of that public-health message – to dry your hands just as well – is just as important, according to Miryam Wahrman, a biology professor at William Paterson University and the author of “The Hand Book: Surviving in a Germ-Filled World,” which dedicates seven pages to the topic. [see link below]
- “The very act of drying hands is rife with potential problems, problems of the recontamination of hands,” she told Insider. “You do not want to undo the good of handwashing in the process of drying hands.”
- You could do that if your hands stay wet or even just damp, since moisture is precisely what germs thrive on.
The drying method matters, too. The most hygienic way to dry is with paper or cloth towels, Wahrman said.
- “Research studies show that drying with paper towels or cloth towels removes even more germs than washing alone, as the friction of drying reduces the germ count even further,” she said.
- Cloth towels come with more caveats: They should only be used at home, where each person has his or her own towel and spot to hang it, and thrown in the laundry regularly – even every few days if they’re used often.
- Paper towels are just as effective and can also be used to turn off the faucet and open the door, although they’re less environmentally friendly than the cloth variety.
- Warm air or jet air dryers, on the other hand, don’t come recommended by Wahrman. “They can spew germs back on your hands, and into the air where you can breathe them in.”
- Indeed, one study found that air dryers can blow around potentially pathogenic air, even prompting a Connecticut health center to trade their dryers for paper towels in order to help protect people with compromised immune systems, as Business Insider previously reported.
- Plus, if you’re impatient and don’t wait for your hands to dry completely, you’ll again have created an environment in which germs can flourish.
- What’s more, “moist hands touching a public doorknob on the way out of a public bathroom are the perfect storm of recontamination, making your clean hands germ-covered again,” Wahrman said.
- She recommended using paper towels when available in public restrooms, and keeping a few clean tissues in your pocket for the times they’re unavailable.
Link to Business Insider article
Link to Miryam Wahrman' book
How to Protect Yourself From Coronavirus When Grocery Shopping by Consumer Reports
Cleaning and Disinfection for Households - CDC
For disinfection, most common EPA-registered household disinfectants should be effective.
A list of products that are EPA-approved for use against the virus that causes COVID-19 is available here:
List N: Disinfectants for Use Against SARS-CoV-2 - EPA updates this site with new data.
EPA data rearranged I took the EPA data (as of 5/7/20) and arranged it in a more user friendly format that can be easily printed.
Beyond Pesticides - Disinfectants and Sanitizers They believe that cleaning and disinfecting should reduce risk from pathogens, but if materials are not used properly, they can actually increase risk.
Beyond Pesticides Guide for Residential Use A guide on what to look for when buying disinfectants and sanitizers selected from the EPA list above. Updated 5/8/2020. Check the disinfectant you want to use against there website (above) for the latest information.
Stay 6 Feet Apart. Simulated Cough Reveals That May Not Be Enough
A video showing how far a cough or sneeze goes in the air.
These days, even the sound of a cough – one of the most common symptoms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) – can cause panic and fear. People can get infected when a person coughs or sneezes as tiny droplets travel and permeate the air. These particles can land on surfaces, in a person’s mouth, nose or eyes or can be breathed in by someone nearby. Social distancing recommendations inform people to stay 6 feet apart from one another. A preliminary, flow visualization experiment suggests that this may not be sufficient.
Researchers from Florida Atlantic University’s College of Engineering and Computer Science conducted an experiment using flow visualization to demonstrate how far a cough travels and how long it lingers in the air. Flow visualization is a method that enables flow patterns, such as a stream of particles from a cough, to become visible in fluids like air and water since they are transparent. Various techniques using flow visualization make these patterns visible to the naked eye.
In a laboratory setting, the researchers were able to visually demonstrate a mechanically emulated cough/sneeze jet from an orifice representing the mouth and the associated particle-laden airflow using a mannequin and other props.
“Preliminary results from our experiment reveal that significant concentrations of small particles from a turbulent jet such as from a heavy cough/sneeze can linger in still air for more than one minute. It only took the particles a couple of seconds to travel 3 feet; in about 12 seconds it reached 6 feet and in about 41 seconds it reached around 9 feet,” said Siddhartha Verma Ph.D.
For a heavy cough, the researchers found that particles can even travel up to 12 feet. A lighter cough does not travel as far.
Excellent Youtube video and details at http://www.fau.edu/newsdesk/articles/mechanical-cough-coronavirus.php
Do You Need a Pulse Oximeter?
Too many patients were showing up at the hospital with perilously low oxygen levels, putting them at risk for severe complications and death.
But a simple home gadget called a pulse oximeter could help alert patients to seek help sooner, he said.
Dr. Levitan noted that patients with Covid-19 can experience a potentially dangerous drop in oxygen saturation without having obvious breathing problems. Without a pulse oximeter, they might never know it or get very used to how they feel, despite very low oxygen levels. By the time they go to the hospital feeling shortness of breath, their oxygen levels would have dropped significantly, and they could have very advanced Covid pneumonia.
“They are still talking, thinking clearly, and not in obvious distress,” Dr. Levitan said. “If the level of oxygen became this low all of sudden, these patients would be unconscious, having seizures, or otherwise affected. What that means to me is there is a period of days where they were going silently down and they didn’t know it.”
CDC Recommends Using a Face Covering (Link to CDC)
The Best Material for a Mask (NY Times Article summary)
In recent tests, HEPA furnace filters scored well, as did vacuum cleaner bags, layers of 600-count pillowcases and fabric similar to flannel pajamas. Stacked coffee filters had medium scores. Scarves and bandanna material had the lowest scores, but still captured a small percentage of particles.
“Hold it up to a bright light,” said Dr. Scott Segal, chairman of anesthesiology at Wake Forest Baptist Health who recently studied homemade masks. “If light passes really easily through the fibers and you can almost see the fibers, it’s not a good fabric. If it’s a denser weave of thicker material and light doesn’t pass through it as much, that’s the material you want to use.”
The best medical mask — called the N95 respirator — filters out at least 95 percent of particles as small as 0.3 microns. By comparison, a typical surgical mask — made using a rectangular piece of pleated fabric with elastic ear loops — has a filtration efficiency ranging from 60 to 80 percent.
An allergy-reduction HVAC filter worked the best, capturing 89 percent of particles with one layer and 94 percent with two layers. A furnace filter captured 75 percent with two layers, but required six layers to achieve 95 percent. To find a filter similar to those tested, look for a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) rating of 12 or higher or a microparticle performance rating of 1900 or higher.
The problem with air filters is that they potentially could shed small fibers that would be risky to inhale. So if you want to use a filter, you need to sandwich the filter between two layers of cotton fabric.
A 600 thread count pillow case captured just 22 percent of particles when doubled, but four layers captured nearly 60 percent. A thick woolen yarn scarf filtered 21 percent of particles in two layers, and 48.8 percent in four layers. A 100 percent cotton bandanna did the worst, capturing only 18.2 percent when doubled, and just 19.5 percent in four layers.
The group also tested Brew Rite and Natural Brew basket-style coffee filters, which, when stacked in three layers, showed 40 to 50 percent filtration efficiency — but they were less breathable than other options.
Tests showed good results for homemade masks using quilting fabric.The best-performing designs were a mask constructed of two layers of high-quality, heavyweight “quilter’s cotton,” a two-layer mask made with thick batik fabric, and a double-layer mask with an inner layer of flannel and outer layer of cotton.
For other mask materials and more details see:
The Covid-19 Tracker and NY Times Tracker
This website offers a snapshot of the crisis right now. Click on a country name to get a more detailed geographic breakdown at the state, province, or county level. An easy to use and understand website with data (shown in a bar graphs) from the first case to the current time.
The datasets are drawn from the Johns Hopkins University Center for Systems Science and Engineering, from the COVID Tracking Project, and from USAFacts.
The Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) is a research collective housed within the Department of Civil and Systems Engineering (CaSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)
Summaries, maps and detailed data.
The COVID Tracking Project collects and publishes the most complete testing data available for US states and territories. Our most up-to-date data and annotations
The COVID Tracking Project, launched from The Atlantic, obtains, organizes, and publishes high-quality data required to understand
and respond to the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States. This is the spreadsheet version of the COVID Tracking Project dataset.
Coronavirus numbers by state with links to each state agency
The NY Times Has Five Ways to Follow the Coronavirus Outbreak for Any Metro Area in the U.S.
Just type in your city name and state.
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